It is no secret that this splendid island of Sri Lanka is special owing for a number of significant reasons. And yes, agriculture in Sri Lanka, which has been evolved over centuries with a rich heritage is simply one such reason that further magnifies the value of this magical island. Agriculture in Sri Lanka was not only an economic activity for the Sri Lankans but also a highlighting aspect that shaped the Sri Lankan culture and traditions with a unique sense of positivity. Hence, we thought of sharing with you a glimpse of this rich agricultural heritage in Sri Lanka, along with its present status. Continue reading, and you will find many and more interesting things about the agricultural values of this magical island.
Does Sri Lanka have Good Agriculture?
Of course, yes, it does! Sri Lanka is near the equator with a tropical climate, which is good for cultivation. With the establishment of civilizations in Sri Lanka, agriculture happened to start parallel to them. Ancient people who lived in Sri Lanka settled near water bodies because that made it easier for them to do the cultivation.
Besides, the land of Ceylon is also suitable for agriculture as it contains fertile soil. Further, during the prehistoric era, civilizations began in the north-central part of Sri Lanka. However, that area got rain only for a certain period, and it became a hindrance to agriculture. As a solution, they built tanks to store the water during the rainy season and use them during the dry season. And the interesting fact is that these irrigation systems are still functioning and they still do play a major role in prospering the field of Sri Lankan agriculture.
At present Sri Lankans use both traditional and modern methods for agricultural purposes. With the introduction of an open economy to Sri Lanka after independence, new methods and techniques came to play in the field of agriculture along with other sectors that directly contribute to the country’s economy. Thus, Sri Lanka cultivates and exports several crops to the world market. So, all these things prove to you again and again that Sri Lanka has had, and still has good agriculture even at the present.
History of Agriculture in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka being an agricultural country is immemorial. In fact, the agriculture of Sri Lanka runs back to the initial roots of the country and since then it has evolved up to now. The main occupation of people living in ancient Sri Lanka was agriculture and they used a considerable amount of the county’s land for agricultural purposes. Similarly, they cultivated their own food and foreign foods were rare among them. However, the significance of the agricultural history of Sri Lanka can be detailed under two sections, specifically during the kingdom era and the era of colonization and after independence.
Agriculture During the Kingdom Era
The foremost settlements during the kingdom era also began on either side of valleys of rivers in the plains of the north and southeast parts of the country. Ancient Sri Lankans’ main crop cultivation was paddy under natural rainfall. It is evident how important agriculture was to the ancient people who lived in Sri Lanka when looking at the inventions such as irrigation systems, underground tunnel water systems, canal systems, etc. Since the dry zone does not have sufficient water necessary for agricultural purposes, they came up with the idea of building tanks of different sizes and shapes to store water during the rainy season for later use.
The kings who used to rule Sri Lanka patronized agriculture and its development. Even the palace used to celebrate the special events of agriculture along with the society. There was a period of time (during King Parakramabahu the Great’s era) where Sri Lanka was famous as the “Treasure of East” because the country was able to export rice to other nations in the world as the harvest was excessive than the amount needed. So, all these facts prove to us again and again that agriculture in Sri Lanka has always been an integral part of this country, no matter what.
Agriculture During Colonization and After Independence
Even during the colonization period, people cultivated under the natural rainfall conditions with subsidiary crops for food under a shifting cultivation system. Subsistence agriculture remained as the country’s anchor until the 19th century. In fact, this system continued until the introduction of Coffee to Sri Lanka by the Dutch.
Due to the fast growth of Coffee consumption in England, the expansion of Coffee in Sri Lanka also increased accordingly. However, the coffee plantations in Sri Lanka were destroyed owing to an infection after several years. As a result, the promotion of tea plantations took place with the involvement of the British, and the tea industry benefited this small island in a way that no one could ever imagine.
Moreover, the replacement of coffee cultivated lands in upland with tea happened while the introduction of rubber plantations was carried out in the low country. Meanwhile, coconut cultivation began in home gardens and gradually expanded. The local cultivators showed a keen interest in coconut plantations and by 1900, 40% of cultivated lands were covered with coconut. The Southern and Western areas of the country were prominent.
Likewise, history reveals that agriculture in Sri Lanka is a continuation of a legacy that our ancestors left behind. Thanks to them, this splendid island still keeps practicing agriculture, while maintaining the harmonious entangled with nature and benefiting the country immensely.
Why is Agriculture Important to Sri Lanka?
Agriculture is indeed one of the most important sectors in the Sri Lankan economy. The National GDP of Sri Lanka is made up of approximately 7% from the agriculture sector whereas 1.2% is from the fisheries sector and 0.6% from the livestock sector. In addition, over 25% of the Sri Lankan workforce belongs to the agriculture sector. The growth of this sector has been hampered due to the issues in productivity and profitability although the country has physical conditions such as fertile soil and tropical climate that is suitable for most of the crops. The majority of people who live in rural areas of the country do paddy farming in the subsistence sector as their living.
Another reason that makes agriculture more important is the supply of food along with fodder. This sector supplies fodder for the domestic animals and receives dairy products such as milk, a form of protective food. In addition, livestock caters to the food requirements of the people.
Another vital reason related to agriculture is the international trade activities, which supply tea, spices, oilseeds, and rubber to the world market. The state is trying to increase the contribution of marketable surplus as even non-agricultural sectors are also depending on the food supply of the nation. This helps to minimize unnecessary exportations. As an initiation to this process, the Sri Lankan government is trying to produce the rice needs of the country by developing rice cultivation in Sri Lanka itself.
Ensuring the food security of the country is another reason that makes agriculture essential. This will prevent malnutrition and secure the health conditions of the citizens. Agriculture also contributes to environmental pollution in a minimal amount as it uses environmentally friendly methods in comparison to other sectors.
What are the Main Agricultural Products of Sri Lanka?
The production of rice is the most basic type of agriculture in Sri Lanka. During the two seasons called Yala and Maha, the cultivation of rice happens every year. In addition, the tea plantation is happening in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. Tea is one of the prominent crops and a major source of foreign exchange for Sri Lanka by exporting them to the world market. Moreover, some other crops such as fruits, vegetables, spices, and oilseeds are cultivated in the country for local use as well as exportation.
Let us now have a glimpse at a few major agricultural products in Sri Lanka and their importance.
Rice Cultivation in Sri Lanka
The rice cultivation history of Sri Lanka goes back to nearly 3000 years. Paddy fields were mostly near water resources to fulfill the water requirements easily. Even back then, the kings who ruled Sri Lanka identified the importance of paddy farming to prosper the country. In order to do that they developed irrigation and patronized paddy farming.
However, animal and human labor are replaced with machinery at present to increase the efficiency of the production process. Even today, the staple food of 21 million Sri Lankans is rice and it is one of the main crops cultivated in the country. More than 2 million of them are engaged in farming directly or indirectly, while more than 30% of the total labor force is engaged with rice cultivation. Sri Lanka receives a rice harvest of 2.4 million tons from over 619,000 ha through the Yala season (from May to August) and an average of 4,291 kg per ha through the Maha season (from September to March). If you consider the two seasons Yala and Maha, Yala season is the most important season for paddy farmers with a significant harvest.
To maintain a stable price for paddy, the governing board of paddy marketing runs a paddy-purchasing program throughout the country.
Tea Plantations in Sri Lanka
The introduction of the tea plantations in Sri Lanka happened as an attempt to recover from the loss caused by the collapse of the coffee plantation due to a disease. At first, the tea plantations in Sri Lanka started at an experimental level. But, at present, it is accountable for the 2% of GDP of Sri Lanka, and approximately, it supplies 700 million US dollars to the economy of the country annually.
Over one million of the labor force of the country are employed directly or indirectly in tea plantations and estates. Besides, Sri Lanka holds the fourth largest position in tea production in the world. The high quality of the tea produced in Sri Lanka is due to the favorable humidity, temperature, and rainfall in the central highlands of the country. In the central province, Kandy and Nuwara Eliya are prominent in tea plantations whereas Badulla, Bandarawela, and Haputale from Uva province, Galle, Matara, and Mulkirigala in Southern province, and Kegalle and Ratnapura in Sabaragamuwa province are famous for tea plantations.
The Middle East countries, Russia, North America, and China are the main tea export markets of Sri Lanka. However, Kenya stands as one of the major competitors of Sri Lanka in the tea market.
Fruits and Vegetable Cultivation
Sri Lanka has a variety of agro-climatic areas and around 80 varieties of fruits and vegetables grow in these areas. As a result, the following set of crops grow successfully under cool and healthy climatic conditions.
- Salad leaves
- Bell pepper
- Salad cucumber.
The Hill Country of Sri Lanka has the ideal climate necessary for these temperature crops.
Besides, the appropriate climate for tropical fruits and vegetables can be found in the well-distinguished low country and dry wet areas. Fruits and vegetables that grow in these areas are as follows.
- Green chili
- Red onion
- Bitter gourd
- Sweet and sour banana types
- Queen pineapple
Sri Lanka exports fresh as well as processed fruits and vegetables. The Middle East market receives more than 90% of fresh products while 75% of processed products target the European market. In fact, Sri Lanka grows different types of local yams informally called Innala (Plectranthus rotundifolius), Kiri ala (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), underwater stems of Kohila (Lasia Spinosa) and Nelum ala (Nymphaea lotus), and fruits such as breadfruit, young jak, and murunga as well. The country exports them to the world market along with special types of fruits such as mangosteen, ripe jak, avocado, rambutan, starfruit, and anoda.
Oilseed Crops in Sri Lanka
The following crops come under oilseed crop cultivation in Sri Lanka.
Monaragala, Hambantota, Kurunegala, Anuradhapura, Badulla, Ratnapura, Jaffna, and areas in Puttalam district are popular for groundnut cultivation. In Sri Lanka, groundnut seeds are famous as a snack and confectionery (raw consumption) rather than an oil crop.
Jaffna has sesame cultivation that produces sesame used to extract oil for cooking purposes. Sesame cultivation is higher in the Northern regions of Sri Lanka due to the higher demand for sesame oil in Jaffna. The bi-products of this sesame oil extraction are used to feed animals.
Spices Cultivation in Sri Lanka
In 2015, the spice exports of Sri Lanka increased up to 377 million US dollars whereas in 2014 it was only 264 million US dollars. The most popular spice export is Cinnamon, the Island’s premier spice export.
Insiders of the industry categorize Cinnamon as Ceylon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylancium) and Cassia Cinnamon. Those in the West of the world consider Ceylon Cinnamon as a much more upmarket product and because of that, they have a higher price in the market than the other. Accordingly, Sri Lanka exported 28% of the total global cinnamon export worth 128 million US dollars as of 2014.
The second-largest export spice of Sri Lanka is black pepper. Sri Lanka directly exports them to India and Vietnam where they re-export them to Europe under their own label. Furthermore, spices that Sri Lankans grow mostly include the following.
- Curry leaves
Out of the number of essential oils distilled from Sri Lankan spices, Cinnamon oil ranked first for the benefits it provides to humankind for the epoch. In addition, the following oils are produced in the country for the use of locals as well as exportation purposes.
- Clove oil
- Nutmeg oil
- Citronella oil
- Sesame oil
- Cardamom oil
All these cultivations fulfill the needs of a wide population. Besides, they benefit the lives and the country on a large scale as well.
A popular synonym for the coconut tree in Sri Lanka is “the Tree of Abundance” because there is no part of the tree that can be thrown away to waste without getting any use out of it. Sri Lanka’s culture has been heavily woven around the coconut tree and its products since the past. The ideal climate of the country makes sure of the coconut harvest throughout the year.
Further, Sri Lanka has become the fourth largest nation to export coconut products to the world market. Desiccated coconut, virgin coconut oil, and coconut water are some products that are most popular among the exports to the global market. Similarly, other productions from Sri Lanka that are made out of the parts of the coconut tree have captured a higher demand in the world market. The best example is the high-quality bristle fiber products manufactured using the indigenous drum extraction and activated Carbon made with shells of coconut.
Coconut production contributes about 12% of the agricultural production of Sri Lanka. The amount of land covered with coconut cultivation is about 409,244 hectares in 2017. As per records from 2017, 2500 to 3000 million nuts are produced annually. To increase coconut production by up to 3600 million, the government has introduced a number of new measures.
Rubber Production in Sri Lanka
From the moment the first rubber seed was planted in Sri Lanka, nearly 150 years ago, the island produced natural rubber and rubber-based products as well as export to the world market. Thus, it made Sri Lanka the cradle of the rubber industry. Besides, Sri Lanka has won a reputation for high-quality natural rubber latex production as well.
Rubber export manufacturers and rubber exporters mainly produce niche rubber products such as solid tires, sole crepe for shoes, and high-quality surgical gloves to the global market. Moreover, the country produces value-added rubber products by processing raw rubber. They have an international reputation for their durability and quality. Similarly, the industrial solid tires of Sri Lanka have a reputation as the global market leader. Ribbed Smoked Sheets (RSS), various types of crepe rubber, technically specified rubber (TRS), and latex concentrate are the main grades of rubber in the country. Accordingly, Sri Lanka produces a wide rubber products range that includes the following.
- Latex gloves
- Rubber bands
- Miscellaneous sports goods
The rubber industry has created a considerable number of jobs for a large number of people, especially those who live in rural areas of the country. They make a living out of it and maintain economic sustenance.
Agrotechnology Parks in Sri Lanka
An agro-technology park is an agricultural focal area with a large diversity of flora and fauna. The first agro-technology park in Sri Lanka was established in the Kandy district. Three sides of the boundaries of the park are bound by the Mahaweli river near the historical area of Gannoruwa.
Further, by adjoining the government farm in Bataatha, the establishment of the second agro-technology park happened. It is situated in Kalametiya in the Hambantota district. This park contains herbal and medicinal plants of a huge range that grow completely under natural conditions.
The swift information circulation system mainly for farmers, schoolchildren, and the public is the firm focus of the agrotechnology park in Gannoruwa. This place also helps to find the latest recommendations for cultivating crops and technologies created by the government authorities and universities along with private institutions. Another benefit of this is the provision of education and training mechanisms along with aesthetically beautiful landscaping with edible tropical crops. These agro-technology parks have demarcated areas for paddy, vegetables, fruits, root crops, dry zone crops, and floriculture along with appointed instructors for each to provide the visitors with necessary information. In case of further clarification, these parks have displayed the contact information of the instructors.
The vegetable gardens consist of a variety of vegetables that grow in upcountry, low country, and mid-country. Demonstration of hydroponics or soil-less culture and micro-irrigation is happening there. Hi-tech agriculture demonstrates the newly developed micro-irrigation systems, protected agricultural methods, etc. The practical knowledge and specimens needed to operate these systems are available at these agro-technology parks. In the Orchard, they have planted almost all the fruits that are cultivated in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is very useful for schoolchildren to identify the unique rare species of fruits in Sri Lanka.
How many Farms are there in Sri Lanka?
Sri Lanka consists of 180648 registered farms. In fact, the central province has a total of registered farms of 30194 spread among Kandy, Matale, and Nuwara Eliya districts, 11157, 6915, and 12122 respectively. These farms are categorized as cattle, buffalo, swine, goat, sheep, and mixed farms. Moreover, Kandy has 8113 cattle farms, 428 buffalo farms, 22 swine farms, 1688 goat farms, 2 sheep farms, and 904 mixed farms in total. In the Matale district, there are 4473 cattle farms, 654 buffalo farms, 225 swine farms, 708 goat farms, 2 sheep farms, and 853 mixed farms. Similarly, the Nuwara Eliya district consists of 19393 cattle farms, 472 buffalo farms, 15 swine farms, 1762 goat farms, 2 sheep farms, and 478 mixed farms.
The Eastern province of Sri Lanka has 27038 farms in total spread over Ampara, Batticaloa, and Trincomalee districts. Each district has 12869, 6952, and 7217 registered farms respectively. Ampara district has 10219 cattle farms, 548 buffalo farms, 11 swine farms, 1323 goat farms, 7 sheep farms, and 761 mixed farms. In addition, the Batticaloa district consists of 4164 cattle farms, 270 buffalo farms, 5 swine farms, 1232 goat farms, and 1281 mixed farms. Similarly, the Trincomalee district has 4688 cattle farms, 589 buffalo farms, 6 swine farms, 1067 goat farms, 2 sheep farms, and 865 mixed farms.
Furthermore, the North Central province has a total of 23921 spread among the Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa districts. Each district has a total of 18724 and 5197 respectively. Accordingly, Anuradhapura has 14859 cattle farms, 804 buffalo farms, 168 swine farms, 1268 goat farms, and 1625 mixed farms. The North-Western province of Sri Lanka consists of 36787 registered farms, while Sabaragamuwa has 10524, Southern has 12180, Uva has 26711, and the Western province has 13293 farms.
Agriculture Department in Sri Lanka
The Ministry of Agriculture administers the Department of Agriculture (DOA) in Sri Lanka. The central government has the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture.
The Department of Agriculture is one of the largest departments under the Sri Lankan government. It has a huge community of agricultural scientists with high profiles as employees along with an institution network to cover the various agro-ecological regions spread over the island. Focusing on the increment and maintenance of productivity and the production of food crops is one of the main responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. Fulfilling these responsibilities, they aim to achieve enhanced living conditions and income for the farmers and to make the food available at affordable prices to the customers.
In the same way, managing the two agro-technology parks in Sri Lanka comes under the Department of Agriculture. Research, the extension of agriculture, production of seed and planting materials, service regulation such as plant protection act, soil conservation act, control of pesticide act, seed act, etc are some of the functions of the Department of Agriculture.
The management structure of the Department of Agriculture has three research institutions and six technical service centers. Thus, the research institutes are as follows.
- Rice research and development institute
- Field crops research and development institute
- Fruit research and development institute
Similarly, the technical service centers are as follows.
- Seed certification and plant protection center
- Seed and planting material development center
- Extension and training center
- National agriculture information and communication center
- Natural resource management center
- Progress monitoring and evaluation unit
The vision of the agriculture department is to achieve excellence in agriculture for national prosperity. Besides, its mission is to reach equitable and sustainable development in agriculture through the development and dissemination of developed agriculture technology.
Modern Technology Utilized by the Sri Lankan Agricultural Sector
The introduction of modern technology to agriculture in Sri Lanka is going to support the farmers in the country. In order to take the best results out of these technologies, providing the farmers with the necessary training is necessary. The intention of these programs is to increase the productivity and market competitiveness of the agriculture sector in Sri Lanka.
Although one-third of the working population represents the agriculture sector, most of them have little knowledge regarding modern production methods and they are struggling to access the commercial market. This mainly hinders their ability to compete with the commercial market and increase their income.
The USAID and Chemonics have collaborated to support the Supporting Opportunities in Livelihoods Development (SOLID) project to overcome the above challenge. Under this project, they are going to train the farm households in the Northern and Eastern parts of the country related to the improved agricultural practices and new technologies. The project focuses on value chains in dairy and horticulture and provides training to the people engaged in those sectors.
After the introduction of an open economy to Sri Lanka, the rural dairy farmers could only address 20% of the nation’s dairy needs due to the larger exportation of dairy products. They fulfilled 80% of the nation’s dairy needs before the open economy. To address this issue, the project introduced the proper cattle feeding methods. This helped the full-time commercial dairy farmers greatly. Similarly, another issue faced by the horticulture farmers was the all-time loss of chili production in North Central province. Thus, this project helped the farmers to incorporate new farming techniques and technologies such as sprinkler systems. Moreover, the farmers were supported to implement those systems and they were trained to work efficiently with the systems.
Smart Agriculture in Sri Lanka
Smart agriculture is a concept for modern farm management. This uses digital techniques for monitoring and optimizing the quantity and quality of agricultural products. Unlike in the past, farmers have access to a bunch of modern tools and data at present. The following are some tools that range from low-impact information and communication technologies to advanced technologies.
- Internet of Things (IoT)
- Artificial intelligence (AI)
- Big data
- Virtual reality (VR)
- Augmented reality (AR)
Further, the farmers have the chance to use these technologies in order to measure the variation accurately within a field and adapt to them strategically.
Besides, the Department of Agriculture along with other organizations related to agriculture is already initiating mobile platforms, software applications, and interactive ICT to distribute the agriculture-related data and information among necessary parties.
E-Agriculture in Sri Lanka
Since Sri Lanka has a vibrant Information Technology sector that comes up with some E-agriculture solutions, it has led the way to the introduction of E-agriculture concepts to the country. For this purpose, the central government of Sri Lanka is developing the E-agriculture vision. Under that, they have identified a framework that entails the following:
- Establishing an E-agriculture steering committee and task force
- Getting an understanding of the goals, priorities, and challenges faced by the national agriculture
- Developing an initial vision for E-agriculture
- Describing E-agriculture outcomes to meet the vision
- Analyzing the ICT solutions that can understand the outcomes
- Refining and finalizing the vision and outcomes of E-agriculture
At present, almost all young and middle-aged farmers are using mobile phones for marketing purposes of agriculture. In addition, receiving weather alerts via text messages, voicemails and apps are not new to them. The popularization of drones, sensors, satellite image techniques, and nano-technology for farming operations has started by prominent and large agriculture-based business companies as a result.
What are the Major Challenges Faced by the Agriculture Sector in Sri Lanka?
The quality and safety of the food produced in most of the Sri Lankan farm gates are not up to the standards. In fact, these poor-quality productions do not meet the exportation standards. Thus, their income goes down considerably as a result. Under the above circumstances, the interest in agriculture as a livelihood among the youth decreased hugely.
However, a major challenge faced by agriculture in Sri Lanka is the sudden changes in the climate. This makes it hard to decide the harvesting period of crops, the cultivation initiation time, etc. This sudden climate change results in flooding, droughts, changes in rainfall, and many other natural disasters as well. So, all these things bring adverse effects to the success of Sri Lankan agriculture.
Similarly, the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic is another huge obstacle for the future of the agriculture sector in Sri Lanka at present. Since there is no way to predict the time to recover from this, many identify it as a lethal attack on the agricultural sector.
Moreover, the policies and laws enforced by the central government have become a challenge. In fact, the farmers complain that the necessary background testing is not done before law enforcement in the country. For instance, the use of carbonic fertilizer needs to be stopped. Furthermore, the widespread diseases that harm cultivations are another huge challenge. The inability to keep these under control has become a hindrance to the decline of agriculture in Sri Lanka.
The transportation modes in the country are not in the best conditions. Thus, some countries have banned the products imported from Sri Lanka due to quality issues. Moreover, another great challenge is the controlled conditions of product shipping due to the COVID-19 situation in the world.
What are the Strategies to Develop Sri Lankan Agriculture?
In order to overcome the challenges and reach the pinnacle of development, the authorities relevant to the agriculture of Sri Lanka should come up with the necessary steps and strategies. Moreover, the youth of the county should be encouraged to enter the agriculture sector as employees, ensuring their job safety.
The following steps and strategies can be taken to develop agriculture in Sri Lanka.
- The Department of Agriculture can introduce machinery with high technology to the farmers to enhance harvest.
- Authorities can get support from suitable resource persons to find remedies for the diseases spread among the animals and crops.
- Responsible Parties can conduct awareness sessions to educate the farmers about the latest methods and techniques in agriculture. This helps to increase the quality and quantity of products.
- Authorities can pay more attention to the quality and standards of the products. Assuring food safety while transporting to the markets should be a major concern with regard.
- Authorities can regulate laws and policies related to quality and standards.
- Responsible Parties should assist the farmers by providing loan services with lower interest rates or convenient payment methods.
- Authorities can ensure customer satisfaction by increasing product quality and food safety.
- Giving the necessary training required to reach modern technology will increase the productivity of agriculture.
- Authorities can provide the farmers with high-quality improved seeds for cultivation.
- Authorities can create an investor-friendly environment in the country to attract foreign investors.
- Changing and renewing the related policies and laws accordingly is important.
- Introducing modules to the school syllabus to convey the importance of agriculture to the economy of Sri Lanka would be beneficial.
- Authorities can stabilize the national market, therefore, the small-scale farmers can survive safely.
- Responsible Parties can also develop the necessary infrastructure facilities in the country.
The Bottom Line
Many of the countries in the world are failing to maintain a good relationship with nature in the present. As a result, the world is lacking agricultural countries and especially, the new generations lack the interest in farming. In an era as such, Sri Lanka’s contribution to the field of agriculture is indeed significant. It not only plays a major role in maintaining the balance of human-environment interrelations but also contributes to the lifeline of Sri Lankans in huge numbers. Besides, we also cannot ignore the impact that the agriculture sector has on the Sri Lankan economy. So, we can certainly mention that agriculture is an integral part of Sri Lanka as a whole. However, the story of Sri Lankan agriculture does not stop here. It has a long way ahead, and Sri Lanka will surely benefit more from its still-living rich agricultural heritage.